**Max Noether** was a German mathematician who was one of the leaders of nineteenth century algebraic geometry.
Although himself a very distinguished mathematician, his daughter Emmy Noether was to bring greater innovation to mathematics than did her father.

- Max attended school in Mannheim but his studies at the gymnasium were interrupted in 1858.
- At this stage Noether was interested in astronomy, so before beginning his university studies he spent a short period at Mannheim Observatory.
- His doctorate from Heidelberg was on astronomy, and Noether was not required to write a dissertation.
- After the award of his doctorate Noether spent time in Giessen working with Alfred Clebsch.
- Like Noether, Clebsch had begun his career working on physics, but had collaborated with Paul Gordan on Theorie der Abelschen Funktionen Ⓣ(Theory of Abelian functions) in 1866.
- While at Giessen, Noether met Alexander von Brill who was a privatdozent there.
- Clebsch left Giessen to take up an appointment in Göttingen in 1969 and Noether went with him.
- Given Noether's friendship with Clebsch it is not surprising that he would make his journal the main outlet for his publication.
- Noether published many papers in Mathematische Annalen with a major contribution appearing almost every year between 1870 and 1921.
- Appointed a privatdozent in Heidelberg in 1870, Noether was promoted to extraordinary professor there on 25 September 1874.
- Max Noether was one of the leaders of nineteenth century algebraic geometry.
- Following Cremona, Max Noether studied the invariant properties of an algebraic variety under the action of birational transformations.
- In 1873 Noether proved an important result on the intersection of two algebraic curves in the paper Über einen Satz aus der Theorie der algebraischen Functionen Ⓣ(On a set from the theory of algebraic functions) published in volume 6 of Mathematische Annalen.
- Volume 7 of Mathematische Annalen contains the important paper Über die algebraischen Functionen und ihre Anwendung in der Geometrie Ⓣ(On the algebraic functions and their applications in geometry) which was written jointly by Noether and Brill.
- Let us also note that Noether wrote many obituaries.
- Many of the articles in this archive use material from Noether's obituaries.

Born 24 September 1844, Mannheim, Baden, Germany. Died 13 December 1921, Erlangen, Germany.

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Astronomy, Origin Germany

**O’Connor, John J; Robertson, Edmund F**: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive