**Ernesto Pascal** was an Italian mathematician best known for a wide range of textbooks that he produced.

- Ernesto Pascal's education was in his home town of Naples and, after attending school there, he entered the University of Naples.
- Pascal graduated with a laurea in mathematics in 1887 but, even before the award of the degree, he had begun to publish mathematical papers.
- This journal had been founded in Naples by Giuseppe Battaglini together with Nicola Trudi (1811-1894) and Vincenzo Janni (1819-1891) two years before Pascal had been born.
- After graduating, Pascal left Naples and went to the University of Pisa where he continued his studies during the academic year 1887-88.
- Pascal continued his remarkable publication record, another six papers appearing in 1888.
- The leading centre for mathematics in the world at this time was the University of Göttingen in Germany and this is where Pascal went after his year in Pisa.
- Hermann Schwarz and Felix Klein were two leading mathematicians at Göttingen at this time and Pascal particularly benefited from Klein's teaching.
- This meant that, after the year 1888-89 in Göttingen, Pascal returned to Italy in 1889, still only 24 years old, but having considerable experience which would put him in a good position in competitions for chairs in Italy.
- Both Alberto Pascal, born on 23 December 1894, and Mario Pascal, born on 31 May 1896, were born in Pavia.
- Let us return to discuss the career of Ernesto Pascal at Pavia.
- It was during his seven years at Pavia that Pascal began some projects which he continued throughout his life.
- Pascal's production of texts, while at the same time producing a stream of high quality research papers, is quite remarkable.
- Pascal how to present higher mathematics in didactic form.
- Pascal left Pavia in 1907 when he was appointed to the chair of Complementary Algebra and Higher Analysis at the University of Naples.
- Pascal was strongly opposed to Fascist ideas although his colleagues described him as arrogant and authoritarian.
- His most famous student at Naples was Renato Caccioppoli who graduated in 1925 having written a thesis guided by Pascal.
- We should mention one further aspect of Pascal's work which was his interest in mathematical instruments.
- Pascal received many awards and honours for his contributions.
- The Liceo Sientifico Statale Ernesto Pascal in Pompei is named after him.
- A road, the via Ernesto Pascal, in the city of Naples is also named for him.

Born 7 February 1865, Naples, Italy. Died 25 January 1940, Naples, Italy.

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Origin Italy

**O’Connor, John J; Robertson, Edmund F**: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive