**Émile Picard** worked in algebraic geometry as well as elasticity, heat and electricity.

- As well as Émile, she had a second young son, and in order to support them through their education she had to find employment.
- Only her determination to give her sons a good start, despite the tragedy, allowed Émile to receive the education which gave him the chance to achieve the highest international stading in mathematics.
- Picard's secondary education was at the Lycée Napoléon, later called the Lycée Henri IV.
- It was only during the vacation after completing his secondary studies that Picard read an algebra book and suddenly he became fascinated in mathematics.
- Picard received his agrégation in 1877, being placed first.
- In 1881 Picard was nominated for membership of the mathematics section of the Académie des Sciences.
- He had already proved two important theorems which are both today known under Picard's name, yet it was still a little soon to gain admission to the prestigious academy and he would have to wait a few more years.
- In 1885 Picard was appointed to the chair of differential calculus at the Sorbonne in Paris when the chair fell vacant on the death of Claude Bouquet.
- The regulations were circumvented by making Picard his own suppléant until he reached the age of thirty which was in the following year.
- Picard made his most important contributions in the fields of analysis, function theory, differential equations, and analytic geometry.
- Picard's solution was represented in the form of a convergent series.
- Picard used the theory of Hermite's modular functions in the proof of this important result.
- Building on work by Abel and Riemann, Picard's study of the integrals attached to algebraic surfaces and related topological questions developed into an important part of algebraic geometry.
- Picard also discovered a group, now called the Picard group, which acts as a group of transformations on a linear differential equation.
- Picard examined several specific cases before discussion his general theory.
- Picard also applied analysis to the study of elasticity, heat and electricity.
- Among the honours given to Picard was his election to the Académie des Sciences in 1889, eight years after he was first unsuccessfully nominated.
- Picard was awarded the Poncelet Prize in 1886 and the Grand Prix des Sciences Mathématiques in 1888.

Born 24 July 1856, Paris, France. Died 11 December 1941, Paris, France.

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**O’Connor, John J; Robertson, Edmund F**: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive