**Werner Heisenberg** did important work in Quantum Mechanics as well as nuclear physics.

- In September 1906, shortly before his fifth birthday, Werner enrolled in a primary school in Würzburg.
- Lessons were arranged in different buildings and as a result of the disruption Heisenberg undertook much independent study which probably had a beneficial effect on his education.
- Heisenberg also worked on farms as his contribution to another voluntary organisation which sent the boys to help in the fields in spring and summer.
- Heisenberg took part in the military suppression of the Bavarian Soviet forces but, although it was a very serious business, the young men probably treated it almost as a game.
- In the Gymnasium Heisenberg led a youth movement and he later led a movement within the Young Bavarian League.
- Eleven scholarships were available and Heisenberg just made it by coming in eleventh place.
- In the period between taking his Abitur examination and entering the University of Munich, Heisenberg went off hiking with his youth group.
- During the summer of 1920 Heisenberg was, as he had been for some time, intending to study pure mathematics at university.
- Had the interview with Lindemann been a success then Heisenberg might today be known as an outstanding number theorist.
- Following this Heisenberg had an interview with Sommerfeld who happily accepted him as a student.
- With his fellow student Pauli, Heisenberg began to study theoretical physics under Sommerfeld in October 1920.
- Heisenberg presented preliminary results on the problem on turbulence at a conference in Innsbruck before going again to Göttingen to study with Born, Franck, and Hilbert while his supervisor was away.
- After taking his doctorate Heisenberg went on a trip to Finland then, in October 1923, he returned to Göttingen as Born's assistant.
- Heisenberg invented matrix mechanics, the first version of quantum mechanics, in 1925.
- Matrix mechanics was further developed in a three author paper by Heisenberg, Born and Jordan published in 1926.
- In May 1926 Heisenberg was appointed Lecturer in Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen where he worked with Niels Bohr.
- In 1927 Heisenberg was appointed to a chair at the University of Leipzig and he delivered his inaugural lecture on 1 February 1928.
- According to Heisenberg one must start from such physical quantities as permit of direct observation, and the task consists of finding the laws which link these quantities together.
- Heisenberg now considered the combination of all the oscillations of such a spectrum as one system, for the mathematical handling of which, he set out certain symbolical rules of calculation.
- These different kinds of motion for atoms and molecules produce different systems in Heisenberg's quantum mechanics.
- As the fundamental factor of Heisenberg's theory can be put forward the rule set out by him with reference to the relationship between the position coordinate and the velocity of an electron, by which rule Planck's constant is introduced into the quantum-mechanics calculations as a determining factor.
- Heisenberg's quantum mechanics has been applied by himself and others to the study of the properties of the spectra of atoms and molecules, and has yielded results which agree with experimental research.
- It can be said that Heisenberg's quantum mechanics has made possible a systemization of spectra of atoms.
- It should also be mentioned that Heisenberg, when he applied his theory to molecules consisting of two similar atoms, found among other things that the hydrogen molecule must exist in two different forms which should appear in some given ratio to each other.
- This prediction of Heisenberg's was later also experimentally confirmed.
- Heisenberg is perhaps best known for the Uncertainty Principle, discovered in 1927, which states that determining the position and momentum of a particle necessarily contains errors the product of which cannot be less than the quantum constant ℏ.
- It was in 1927 that Heisenberg attended the Solvay Conference in Brussels.
- Heisenberg published The Physical Principles of Quantum Theory in 1928.
- In the 1930s Heisenberg and Pauli used a quantised realisation of space in their lattice calculations.
- Heisenberg hoped this mathematical property would lead to a fundamental property of nature with a 'fundamental length' as one of the constants of nature.
- In 1932 Heisenberg wrote a three part paper which describes the modern picture of the nucleus of an atom.
- Sommerfeld was 66 and he had already indicated that he wanted Heisenberg to succeed him.
- It was an appointment which Heisenberg badly wanted and in 1935 Sommerfeld again indicated that he wanted Heisenberg to fill his chair.
- Relativity and quantum theory were classed as "Jewish" and as a consequence Heisenberg's appointment to Munich was blocked.
- Although he was in no way Jewish, Heisenberg was subjected to frequent attacks in the press describing him to be of "Jewish style".
- An excellent pianist, Heisenberg met Elisabeth Schumacher at a concert in which he was performing at the house of a friend.
- Elizabeth was only 22 when they met, Heisenberg was 35.
- During the Second World War Heisenberg headed the unsuccessful German nuclear weapons project Uranverein.
- When the Max Planck Institute moved to Munich in 1958 Heisenberg continued as its director.
- Heisenberg received many honours for his remarkable contributions in addition to the Nobel Prize for Physics.

Born and Jordan published in 1926. * In May 1926 Heisenberg was appointed Lecturer in Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen where he worked with Niels Bohr. * In 1927 Heisenberg was appointed to a chair at the University of Leipzig and he delivered his inaugural lecture on 1 February 1928. * According to Heisenberg one must start from such physical quantities as permit of direct observation, and the task consists of finding the laws which link these quantities together. * Heisenberg now considered the combination of all the oscillations of such a spectrum as one system, for the mathematical handling of which, he set out certain symbolical rules of calculation. * These different kinds of motion for atoms and molecules produce different systems in Heisenberg's quantum mechanics. * As the fundamental factor of Heisenberg's theory can be put forward the rule set out by him with reference to the relationship between the position coordinate and the velocity of an electron, by which rule Planck's constant is introduced into the quantum-mechanics calculations as a determining factor. * Heisenberg's quantum mechanics has been applied by himself and others to the study of the properties of the spectra of atoms and molecules, and has yielded results which agree with experimental research. * It can be said that Heisenberg's quantum mechanics has made possible a systemization of spectra of atoms. * It should also be mentioned that Heisenberg, when he applied his theory to molecules consisting of two similar atoms, found among other things that the hydrogen molecule must exist in two different forms which should appear in some given ratio to each other. * This prediction of Heisenberg's was later also experimentally confirmed. * Heisenberg is perhaps best known for the Uncertainty Principle, discovered in 1927, which states that determining the position and momentum of a particle necessarily contains errors the product of which cannot be less than the quantum constant ℏ. * It was in 1927 that Heisenberg attended the Solvay Conference in Brussels. * Heisenberg published The Physical Principles of Quantum Theory in 1928. * In the 1930s Heisenberg and Pauli used a quantised realisation of space in their lattice calculations. * Heisenberg hoped this mathematical property would lead to a fundamental property of nature with a 'fundamental length' as one of the constants of nature. * In 1932 Heisenberg wrote a three part paper which describes the modern picture of the nucleus of an atom. * Sommerfeld was 66 and he had already indicated that he wanted Heisenberg to succeed him. * It was an appointment which Heisenberg badly wanted and in 1935 Sommerfeld again indicated that he wanted Heisenberg to fill his chair. * Relativity and quantum theory were classed as "Jewish" and as a consequence Heisenberg's appointment to Munich was blocked. * Although he was in no way Jewish, Heisenberg was subjected to frequent attacks in the press describing him to be of "Jewish style". * In 1937 Heisenberg married Elisabeth Schumacher. * An excellent pianist, Heisenberg met Elisabeth Schumacher at a concert in which he was performing at the house of a friend. * Elizabeth was only 22 when they met, Heisenberg was 35. * Heisenberg had been asked to take up the appointment at Munich in March but had asked for the date to be delayed until August because of his wedding. * During the Second World War Heisenberg headed the unsuccessful German nuclear weapons project Uranverein. * When the Max Planck Institute moved to Munich in 1958 Heisenberg continued as its director. * Heisenberg received many honours for his remarkable contributions in addition to the Nobel Prize for Physics.

Born and Jordan published in 1926. * In May 1926 Heisenberg was appointed Lecturer in Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen where he worked with Niels Bohr. * In 1927 Heisenberg was appointed to a chair at the University of Leipzig and he delivered his inaugural lecture on 1 February 1928. * According to Heisenberg one must start from such physical quantities as permit of direct observation, and the task consists of finding the laws which link these quantities together. * Heisenberg now considered the combination of all the oscillations of such a spectrum as one system, for the mathematical handling of which, he set out certain symbolical rules of calculation. * These different kinds of motion for atoms and molecules produce different systems in Heisenberg's quantum mechanics. * As the fundamental factor of Heisenberg's theory can be put forward the rule set out by him with reference to the relationship between the position coordinate and the velocity of an electron, by which rule Planck's constant is introduced into the quantum-mechanics calculations as a determining factor. * Heisenberg's quantum mechanics has been applied by himself and others to the study of the properties of the spectra of atoms and molecules, and has yielded results which agree with experimental research. * It can be said that Heisenberg's quantum mechanics has made possible a systemization of spectra of atoms. * It should also be mentioned that Heisenberg, when he applied his theory to molecules consisting of two similar atoms, found among other things that the hydrogen molecule must exist in two different forms which should appear in some given ratio to each other. * This prediction of Heisenberg's was later also experimentally confirmed. * Heisenberg is perhaps best known for the Uncertainty Principle, discovered in 1927, which states that determining the position and momentum of a particle necessarily contains errors the product of which cannot be less than the quantum constant ℏ. * It was in 1927 that Heisenberg attended the Solvay Conference in Brussels. * Heisenberg published The Physical Principles of Quantum Theory in 1928. * In the 1930s Heisenberg and Pauli used a quantised realisation of space in their lattice calculations. * Heisenberg hoped this mathematical property would lead to a fundamental property of nature with a 'fundamental length' as one of the constants of nature. * In 1932 Heisenberg wrote a three part paper which describes the modern picture of the nucleus of an atom. * Sommerfeld was 66 and he had already indicated that he wanted Heisenberg to succeed him. * It was an appointment which Heisenberg badly wanted and in 1935 Sommerfeld again indicated that he wanted Heisenberg to fill his chair. * Relativity and quantum theory were classed as "Jewish" and as a consequence Heisenberg's appointment to Munich was blocked. * Although he was in no way Jewish, Heisenberg was subjected to frequent attacks in the press describing him to be of "Jewish style". * In 1937 Heisenberg married Elisabeth Schumacher. * An excellent pianist, Heisenberg met Elisabeth Schumacher at a concert in which he was performing at the house of a friend. * Elizabeth was only 22 when they met, Heisenberg was 35. * Heisenberg had been asked to take up the appointment at Munich in March but had asked for the date to be delayed until August because of his wedding. * During the Second World War Heisenberg headed the unsuccessful German nuclear weapons project Uranverein. * When the Max Planck Institute moved to Munich in 1958 Heisenberg continued as its director. * Heisenberg received many honours for his remarkable contributions in addition to the Nobel Prize for Physics.

Born 5 December 1901, Würzburg, Germany. Died 1 February 1976, Munich, Germany.

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Origin Germany, Prize Nobel, Physics

**O’Connor, John J; Robertson, Edmund F**: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive