**Gilberto Francisco Loibel** was a Brazilian mathematician who played a major role in the development of mathematical sciences in Brazil. He supervised 19 Master's dissertations and 8 Doctoral theses.

- Dr Gertrud Loibel (age 36) and Gerda Angelica Loibel (age 2) sailed from Hamburg, Germany, to Brazil on the ship General Osorio leaving on 3 April 1930.
- Gilberto's primary education was in Germany and he also began his secondary education there.
- When Gilberto attended, it was actually named Colégio Estadual e Escola Normal of Jundiaí, only adopting the name Instituto de Educação in 1953.
- Loibel completed his studies at the college in 1951 and, in the following year, he was ranked first in the entrance examination for the bachelor's degree in Mathematics at the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Letters of the University of São Paulo.
- While studying mathematics at the University of São Paulo, Loibel was taught by Omar Catunda, Elza Gomide and Cândido Silva Dias among others.
- Loibel began undertaking research for a Ph.D., advised by Achille Bassi and took postgraduate courses taught by Bassi, Jauréz Cecconi and Ubaldo Richard.
- In 1959 Loibel was awarded a doctorate for his thesis Sobre Quase Grupos Topológicos e Espaços com Multiplicação Ⓣ(On almost topological groups and spaces with multiplication).
- In 1960 Loibel was promoted to Assistant to the Chair of Geometry at São Carlos.
- Loibel's host at Berkeley was Edwin Spanier who had been appointed to Berkeley one year earlier and had begun building up a strong group working in geometry and topology by several appointments of topologists.
- During the visit, Loibel had contact with leading topologists and geometers.
- Loibel remained in Berkeley until 1962 when he returned to Brazil and was promoted to Regent Professor in the Department of Mathematics in the São Carlos School of Engineering and became Head of Mathematics.
- In 1965 Loibel ended his time as Head of Mathematics and from October 1965 to July 1966 he was a Visiting Professor at the Universidad Central de Venezuela.
- Loibel gave a postgraduate course on 'Singularities' and postdoctoral courses were given by Leopoldo Nachbin and Israel Herstein.
- Loibel was the coordinator of this Colloquium and among courses given we mention 'Fundamental Group and Covering' by Carlos Benjamin de Lyra, 'Galois Theory' by Jacy Monteiro and 'Invariant Subspaces' by Paul Halmos.
- The meeting to found the Society was attended by 162 mathematicians and was chaired by Loibel.
- The course on Singularities that Loibel taught at the Sixth Brazilian Mathematics Colloquium in 1967 was written up as the book Singularidades das aplicações diferenciáveis Ⓣ(Singularities of differentiable applications) and published by the Instituto Nacional de Matemática Pura e Aplicada (IMPA).
- Loibel had worked in that Department from 1956 but there were problems caused by the fact that it was part of an engineering school.
- Some of them, including Professor Loibel, defended the idea of bringing together the Basic Sciences in a single Institute separate from the Engineering School.
- in addition to being the person who introduced the Theory of Singularities in Brazil, Loibel was the founder of the Grupo de Singularidades de São Carlos.
- Many of the dissertations and theses supervised by Loibel were pioneers in the topics covered, thanks to the supervisor's brilliance.
- On 11 January 1971 Loibel was elected to the Brazilian Academy of Sciences.
- From 1971 to 1976, Loibel coordinated the Graduate Programme in Mathematics at São Carlo.
- Gilberto even presided over the founding meeting of the Brazilian Society of Mathematics, in 1969, and is a founding member of the Academy of Sciences of the State of São Paulo.
- The tribute took place one year after the death of Professor Gilberto Francisco Loibel, one of the main drivers of the study and research environment in mathematics in the interior of the State of São Paulo.

Born 24 May 1932, São Paulo, Brazil. Died 13 November 2013, São Paulo, Brazil.

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Origin Brazil, Topology

**O’Connor, John J; Robertson, Edmund F**: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive