**William John Youden** was an Australian born American statistician who formulated new statistical techniques in statistical analysis and in the design of experiments.

- For five years they lived in Dover, then when Youden was seven they emigrated to the United States.
- Youden was sixteen years old when he began to live in Rochester and he was nearing the age to begin his university education.
- In September 1922 Youden entered Columbia University to study, first for his Master's Degree which was awarded in 1923, then for his doctorate which was awarded in 1924.
- So far we have seen nothing which might indicate why Youden would be the right person to include in this history of mathematics archive.
- Up to this time Youden had shown no interest in statistics, the area to which he would eventually make a major contribution.
- Youden did not become interested in statistics for a few years.
- Over the first few years that he worked at the Institute Youden became more and more disillusioned with the way that measurements were made in biology.
- This book opened up a new world for Youden who now saw that he had the perfect opportunity to carry out agricultural experiments which could be set up using the new experiment designs put forward by Fisher.
- In 1931 Youden published his first paper on statistical methods.
- the beginning of Youden's "missionary" efforts to acquaint research workers with statistical methods of value in their work.
- In his work during the 1930s on the statistical design of experiments, Youden introduced new methods based on balanced incomplete block designs.
- Youden made Fisher aware of these methods in 1936 and Fisher called the new experiment designs 'Youden squares' in his work on Statistical tables published jointly with Yates in 1938.
- Youden published a paper in 1937 Use of incomplete block replications in estimating tobacco mosaic virus which used his new rectangular experimental arrangements.
- Cyclic and partly cyclic methods of generating Youden squares are given particular attention.
- Some balanced Graeco-Latin designs that incorporate Youden squares are discussed; these have statistical interest because of their potential for use as designs for orchard experiments, and some have mathematical interest because of their role in the construction of Graeco-Latin squares.
- In 1948 Youden, by now recognised as a leading statistician as well as a chemist, joined the National Bureau of Standards.
- In 1974, three years after his death, Youden's final book was published.

Born 12 April 1900, Townsville, Australia. Died 31 March 1971, Washington, D.C., USA.

View full biography at MacTutor

Origin Australia, Statistics

**Oâ€™Connor, John J; Robertson, Edmund F**: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive