◀ ▲ ▶Branches / Graphtheory / Algorithm: Get the Cut Vertices and Biconnected Components of a Connected Graph
Let \(G(V,E)\) be a connected undirected graph. The following algorithm \(\mathtt{getBICONNECTEDCOMPONENTS(G)}\) obtains correctly all of its cutvertices and biconnected components in the time complexity \(\mathcal O(V+E)\).
Algorithm: Get the Cut Vertices and Biconnected Components of a Connected Graph
```
FOR v\in V
visited[v]:=NIL; // unmark all vertices in `\(G\)`
NEXT
B=\emptyset; // initiate empty set of all biconnected components
S=\text{empty stack}; // initiate empty stack
enum:=1;
FOR v\in V
IF visited[v]=NIL THEN
CALL \{\mathtt{calculateLowpoint(G,v,B,S,enum)}\}; // print all cutvertices and store biconnected components in `\(B\)`;
ENDIF
NEXT
RETURN B; // return all found biconnected components
// Function `\(\mathtt{calculateLowpoint(G,v,B,S,m)}\)` calculates the lowpoint of `\(v\)`.
// The lowpoint is lowest depth of all descendants of v in the depthfirstsearch tree
FUNCTION \mathtt{calculateLowpoint(G,v,B,S,enum)}
enum:=enum+1;
visited[v]:=enum;
numberOfDescendants[v]:=0; // set the number of descendants to 0
lowpoint:=enum;
S.push(v); // put `\(v\)` on a stack
FOR n\in f(v)// for all (neighbors) `\(n\)` of `\(v\)`
IF visited[n] = NIL THEN // if the neighbor `\(n\)` has not yet been visited
numberOfDescendants[v]:=numberOfDescendants[v]+1; // increase the number of descendants
lowpointneighbor:=\mathtt{calculateLowpoint(G,n,B,S,enum)}; // depthfirst search for the next neighbor `\(n\)`
IF lowpointneighbor < lowpoint THEN
lowpoint:=lowpointneighbor;
ENDIF
IF visited[v]==0 THEN
;// special case for root of DFS
;// root is an cutvertex iif there are two or more descendants
IF numberOfDescendants[v]\ge 2 THEN
outputComponent(G,B,S,v); // a new cutvertex `\(v\)` and a new biconnected component found
ENDIF
ELSE
IF (lowpointneighbor \ge visited[v] THEN
outputComponent(G,B,S,v); // a new cutvertex `\(v\)` and a new biconnected component found
ENDIF
ELSE
IF visited[n] < lowpoint THEN
lowpoint=visited[n];
ENDIF
ENDIF
NEXT
RETURN lowpoint;
ENDFUNCTION
// function `\(\mathtt{outputComponent(G,B,S,v)}\)` prints the cutvertex `\(v\)`
// and returns a subgraph of `\(G\)`,
// which is its biconnected component
FUNCTION outputComponent(G,B,S,v)
PRINT v; // new cutvertex found
V:=\emptyset; // initiate an empty set of vertices
REPEAT
x:=S.pull(); // pull vertex from stack
V:=V\cup \{x\}; // add vertex to set `\(V\)`
UNTIL x=v; // until the vertex `\(v\)` is reached
B:=B\cup \{G[V]\}; // output the subgraph of `\(G\)` induced by `\(V\)` (=biconnected component of `\(G\)`)
S.push(v); // put cutvertex `\(v\)` on a stack as part of the next biconnected component
ENDFUNCTION
Table of Contents
Proofs: 1
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References
Bibliography
 Sedgewick, Robert: "Algorithmen in C++", AddisonWesley, 1992, 1st Edition