# Proof

### Infinite case "$\Rightarrow$"

• Assume, $X$ is infinite.
• Choose $x_1\in X,$ $x_2\in X\setminus\{x_1\},$ $x_3\in X\setminus\{x_1,x_2\},$ etc.
• Since $X$ is infinite, we can continue this process for all indices $i\in\mathbb N$ be mapping $f:\mathbb N\to X,$ $f(i):=x_i.$
• By construction, this is an injective function $f:\mathbb N\to X.$
• Now, define the function $g:X\to S$ ($S$ being a proper subset of $X$) as follows: $$g(x):=\begin{cases}x&\text{if }x\in X\setminus \{x_i\mid i\in\mathbb N\}\\x_{i+1}&\text{if }x=x_i\end{cases}$$
• By construction, the function $g$ is injective as well.

### Infinite case "$\Leftarrow$"

• By contraposition to finite case $"\Rightarrow",$ if there is an injective function $f:X\to S,$ then $X$ is not finite, therefore $X$ is infinite.

### Finite case "$\Leftarrow$"

• By contraposition to the infinite case $"\Rightarrow",$ if there is no injective function $g:X\to S,$ then $X$ is not infinite, therefore $X$ is finite.

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### References

#### Bibliography

1. Flachsmeyer, Jürgen: "Kombinatorik", VEB Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 1972, 3rd Edition