Epoch: 12th Century
- The town of Moscow is mentioned in written sources the first time (1157).
- The Yoruba city-states are founded in the south of Nigeria (1150).
- Jabir ibn Aflah writes works on mathematics which will be later translated into Latin and become available to European mathematicians.
- Adelard (1075,1160) It is possible that Adelard's translation took place after 1133 or, equally likely, that the scribe making the later copy added information about a recent eclipse which was not in Adelard's original text.
- Hemchandra (1089,1173) Before we rush to try to change the name of the Fibonacci numbers into Hemchandra number it is worth noting that Gopala had studied these numbers in about 1135 and Indian mathematicians as early as the 7th century had looked at sequences which are produced by the familiar Fibonacci rule.
- Abraham (1092,1167) From 1140 to 1160 ibn Ezra's life changed markedly.
- Bhaskaracharya writes
- "Lilavati" (The Beautiful) which is on mathematics;
- "Bijaganita" (Seed Counting or Root Extraction) which is on algebra;
- the "Siddhantasiromani" which is in two parts, the first on mathematical astronomy with the second part on the sphere;
- the "Vasanabhasya of Mitaksara" which is a commentary on the "Siddhantasiromani";
- the "Karanakutuhala" (Calculation of Astronomical Wonders) or "Brahmatulya" which is a simplified version of the Siddhantasiromani;
- and the "Vivarana" which is a commentary on the Shishyadhividdhidatantra of Lalla.
- like Brahmagupta before him, handled efficiently arithmetic involving negative numbers.
- Gherard of Cremona translates Arabic works (and Arabic translations of Greek works) into Latin.
- Ha-Nasi (1070,1136) Rather strangely, however, 1145 was also the year that al-Khwarizmi's algebra book was translated by Robert of Chester so Abraham bar Hiyya's work was rapidly joined by a second text giving the complete solution to the general quadratic equation.
- Al Samawal
- "Arithmetisation of algebra", polynomials using negative powers and zero.
- Solves quadratic equations
- Calculates the sum of the squares of the first $n$ natural numbers.
- Gherard of Cremona introduces Arabic numerals into Europe with his translation of Ptolemy's Almagest. The name of the "sine" function comes from this translation.
- Al-Tusi Al-Tusi teaches Abu'l Fadl about the works of Euclid and Ptolemy in Damascus.
- Reinher publishes his treatise "Computus emendatus" Ⓣ(Calculation improved), an improved calculation method for calculating the date of Easter.
- Al-Tusi discusses twelve types of equation of degree at most two.
Table of Contents
- Person: Jabir Ibn Aflah
- Person: Bhaskara (2)
- Person: Gherard Of Cremona
- Person: Al-Samawal
- Person: Al-Tusi, Sharaf al-Din
- Person: Reinher Of Paderborn
- Person: Grosseteste, Robert
- Person: Fibonacci, Leonardo Pisano
- Person: Scot, Michael
- Person: Zhi, Li
- Person: De Sacrobosco, Johannes