(related to Theorem: Theorem of Large Numbers for Relative Frequencies)

For a natural number \(n\ge 1\), let \(f_n(A)\) be the absolute frequency, in which the event \(A\) could occur, if we repeat the Bernoulli experiment \(n\) times. We can interpret \(f_n\) as a random variable counting the number \(k\) of the realizations of \(A\) with \(0\le f_n(A)=k\le n\). With this interpretation, it follows from the binomial distribution that the probability mass function of \(f_n\) is given by

\[p(f_n=k)=\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}\quad\quad(k=0,1,\ldots n),\quad\quad( * )\]

where \(P:=p(A)\) denotes the probability of the event \(A\). Similarly, the relative frequency \(F_n(A):=f_n(A)/n\) can be interpreted as a random variable \(F_n\) with the possible realizations \(0\le F_n\le n/n=1\). The probability mass function of \(F_n\) does not change
\[p\left(F_n=\frac kn\right)=\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}\quad\quad(k=0,1,\ldots n),\] because \[F_n=\frac kn\Longleftrightarrow f_n=k.\quad\quad(* *)\]

Let \(\epsilon > 0\) be an arbitrarily small real number. Note that the events \((F_n < P - \epsilon)\) and \((F_n > P + \epsilon)\) in each Bernoulli experiment repeated \(n\) times are mutually exclusive. From the definition of probability and the definition of absolute value it follows that

\[p(|F_n-P| > \epsilon)=p(F_n < P-\epsilon) + p(F_n > P+\epsilon).\]

Because of \(( * * )\) and \(( * )\) , we can conclude further that

\[\begin{array}{rcl} p(|F_n-P| > \epsilon)&=&p(f_n < n(P-\epsilon)) + p(f_n > n(P+\epsilon))\\ &=&\sum_{k < n(P-\epsilon)}p(f_n=k)+\sum_{k > n(P+\epsilon)}p(f_n=k)\\ &=&\sum_{k < n(P-\epsilon)}\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}+\sum_{k > n(P+\epsilon)}\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}. \end{array}\quad\quad ( * * * )\]

Applying the distributivity law for real numbers and the rules of calculation with inequations, we observe that the summation indices \(k\) of both sums on the right side of \(( * * * ) \) fulfill a common property \( ( \times ) \)

\[\left.\begin{array}{rclcr} k < n(P-\epsilon)&\Rightarrow& k < nP-n\epsilon&\Rightarrow& n\epsilon < nP-k\\ k > n(P+\epsilon)&\Rightarrow& k > nP+n\epsilon&\Rightarrow& k - nP > n\epsilon \end{array}\right\}\Rightarrow(n\epsilon)^2 < (nP-k)^2\quad\quad ( \times )\]

By multiplying the respective left and right sides of the equation \( ( * * * ) \) by the inequation \( ( \times ) \), we get the inequation

\[\begin{array}{rcl} (n\epsilon)^2p(|F_n-P| > \epsilon)& < &\sum_{k < n(P-\epsilon)}(nP-k)^2\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}+\sum_{k > n(P+\epsilon)}(nP-k)^2\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}. \end{array}\]

Because \(p(f_n=k)=0\) for all \(k < 0\) and all \(k > n\), we get finally the inequation

\[\begin{array}{rcl} (n\epsilon)^2p(|F_n-P| > \epsilon)& < &\sum_{k =0}^n(nP-k)^2\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}\\ &=&\sum_{k =0}^n(n^2P^2 - 2nPk +k^2)\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}\\ &=&\underbrace{n^2P^2\sum_{k =0}^n\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}}_{=:S_1}-\underbrace{2nP\sum_{k =0}^nk\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}}_{=:S_2}+\underbrace{\sum_{k =0}^nk^2\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}}_{=:S_3}\\ \end{array}\quad\quad ( \times\times )\]

Applying the sum of binomial coefficients (i) for all \(n\ge 0\), we obtain the result:

\[S_1=n^2P^2\sum_{k =0}^n\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}=n^2P^2\cdot 1=n^2P^2.\]

Similarly, applying the sum of binomial coefficients (ii) for all for all \(n\ge 1\), we obtain the result:

\[S_2=-2nP\sum_{k =0}^nk\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}=-2nP\cdot nP=-2n^2P^2.\]

For the third sum, applying the sum of binomial coefficients (iii) , we get for \(n\ge 0\):

\[S_3=\sum_{k =0}^nk^2\binom nk P^k(1-P)^{n-k}=nP(1-P)+n^2P^2.\]

Thus, it follows from \((\times\times)\) and because the \(P(1-P)\) for \(P\in[0,1]\) has its maximum at \(\frac 12\):

\[\begin{array}{rcll} (n\epsilon)^2p(|F_n-P| > \epsilon)& < &nP(1-P)\\ &\Longleftrightarrow&\\ p(|F_n-P| > \epsilon)& < &\frac{P(1-P)}{n\epsilon^2}&\text{for a fixed }\epsilon > 0\text{ and all }n\ge 1\\ &\Longleftrightarrow&\\ p(|F_n-P| > \epsilon)& < &\frac{1}{4n\epsilon^2}&\text{for a fixed }\epsilon > 0\text{ and all }n\ge 1.\\ \end{array}\quad\quad ( \times\times\times )\]

It follows

\[\lim_{n\to\infty}p(|F_n(A)-P| > \epsilon)=0\quad\quad\text{for every fixed }\epsilon > 0.\]

The probability of the complement event is given by

\[\lim_{n\to\infty}p(|F_n(A)-P|\le \epsilon)=1\quad\quad\text{for every fixed }\epsilon > 0.\]

Therefore, it is almost certain that the sequence members \(F_n\) will approximate the probability \(P\) with virtually any accuracy, if \(n\) is large enough.

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  1. Bosch, Karl: "Elementare Einf├╝hrung in die Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung", vieweg Studium, 1995, 6th Edition