Epoch: Early Middle Ages
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- Yativrsabha writes "Tiloyapannatti"
- Various units for measuring distances and time
- System of infinite time measures
- Gives a description of the universe which is of historical importance in understanding Jaina cosmology and mathematics.
- Varahamihira discovers a version of Pascal's triangle and works on magic squares.
- Writes "Pancasiddhantika" (The Five Astronomical Canons) treatise on mathematical astronomy which summarizes five lost earlier astronomical treatises, namely the Surya, Romaka, Paulisa, Vasistha and Paitamaha siddhantas.
- Yativrsabha's work "Tiloyapannatti" gives various units for measuring distances and time and also describes the system of infinite time measures.
- Xiaotong: Chinese calendar reform and the solution of cubic equations.
- Chunfeng: Chinese calendar reform, high-ranking court astronomer and historian, being first appointed to the Imperial Astronomical Bureau
- Writes "Brahmasphutasiddhanta" and "Khandakhadyaka"
- Understanding of arithmetics beyond that of others of the period, e.g. "The product or quotient of two debts is one fortune.", "When zero is added to a number or subtracted from a number, the number remains unchanged; and a number multiplied by zero becomes zero."
- Trials to extend arithmetics: "Zero divided by zero is zero."
- Chunfeng Works on the Linde calendar, which was introduced in 665 and used until 728.
- Alcuin visits Aachen to meet the leading scholars of the time.
- Writes elementary texts on arithmetic, geometry and astronomy.
- Al-Jawhari best known as a geometer, made observations in Baghdad from 829 to 830 while working for al-Ma'mun.
- Writes "Commentary on Euclid's Elements"
- Examples of early attempts by Muslim mathematicians to adopt Euclid's methods (tries to "prove" Euclid's definition 5 (equal ratio) and definition 7 (greater ratio)).
- Govindasvami writes the "Bhasya", a commentary on the "Mahabhaskariya" Ⓣ(The big book of Bhaskara).
- Approximation to the trigonometric sine function by means of a rational fraction.
- Hunayn translates Greek of Plato and Aristotle into Arabic.
- Al-Mahani Astronomical observations between the years 853 and 866.
- Reducing problems such as duplicating the cube to problems in algebra.
- Ibn Yusuf works on ratio and proportion and writes a commentary on Euclid's Elements.
- Narayana writes "Laghubhaskariya vivarana", using the katapayadi numeration for the first time.
- Al-Battani catalogues 489 stars (868,929) and makes accurate measurements of the stars, moon and planets.
- Writes and proves 19 propositions, e.g. t an equilateral triangle has a greater area than any isosceles or scalene triangle with the same perimeter.
- Claims to have proven that $x^3+y^3=z^3$ is impossible for whole numbers $x,y,z$, later becoming known as a special case of Fermat's Last Theorem.
- makes astronomical observations during 969-970
- Writes "Book of the measurement of spheres by spheres", in which he gives twelve theorems about volumes of a large sphere containing between one and three smaller spheres.
- Mohammad opens an astronomical observatory with a number of famous scientists present such as al-Quhi and Abu'l-Wafa.
- Al-Khujandi Uses an instrument to observe a series of meridian transits of the sun near the solstices.
- Al-Biruni describes an eclipse of the moon on 24 May 997 which he observed at Kath
- Kushyar writes "Principles of Hindu reckoning"
- Al-Jayyani writes commentaries on Euclid's Elements and a first treatise on spherical trigonometry.
- Mansur discovers the sine rule for triangles.
- Gerbert (also known as Pope Sylvester II) popularises Indo-Arabic numerals.
Table of Contents
- Person: Yativrsabha
- Person: Varahamihira
- Person: Xiaotong, Wang
- Person: Brahmagupta
- Person: Bhaskara
- Person: Chunfeng, Li
- Person: Lalla
- Person: Alcuin
- Person: Al-Khwarizmi, Abu Ja&amp;#x27;far Muhammad ibn Musa
- Person: Al-Jawhari, al-Abbas ibn Said
- Person: Musa, Jafar Muhammad Banu
- Person: Banu Musa Brothers
- Person: Govindasvami
- Person: Mahāvīra
- Person: Al-Kindi, Abu Yusuf Yaqub ibn Ishaq al-Sabbah
- Person: Musa (2), Ahmad Banu
- Person: Hunayn Ibn Ishaq
- Person: Al-Hasan Banu Musa
- Person: Al-Mahani, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Isa
- Person: Prthudakasvami
- Person: Ibn Yusuf, Ahmed
- Person: Thabit Ibn Qurra, Al-Sabi
- Person: Sankara, Narayana
- Person: Abu Kamil, ibn Aslam Shuja
- Person: Al-Battani, Abu Abdallah Mohammad ibn Jabir
- Person: Sridhara
- Person: Al-Nayrizi, Abu&amp;#x27;l Abbas al-Fadl ibn Hatim
- Person: Sinan, Abu ibn Thabit ibn Qurra
- Person: Al-Khazin, Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan
- Person: Ibrahim Ibn Sinan
- Person: Al-Uqlidisi, Abu&amp;#x27;l Hasan Ahmad ibn Ibrahim
- Person: Aryabhata The Ii
- Person: Mohammad Abu&amp;#x27;L-Wafa, Al-Buzjani
- Person: Al-Khujandi, Abu Mahmud Hamid ibn al-Khidr
- Person: Al-Quhi, Abu Sahl Waijan ibn Rustam
- Person: Vijayanandi
- Person: Al-Sijzi, Abu Said Ahmad ibn Muhammad
- Person: Gerbert Of Aurillac
- Person: Ibn Yunus, Abu&amp;#x27;l-Hasan Ali Ibn Abd al-Rahman
- Person: Al-Karaji, Abu Bekr ibn Muhammad ibn Al-Husayn
- Person: Alhazen, Abu Ali Al-Hasan ibn Al-Haytham
- Person: Mansur, Abu Nasr ibn Ali ibn Iraq
- Person: Kushyar Ibn Labban
- Person: Al-Biruni, Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad
- Person: Al-Baghdadi, Abu Mansur ibn Tahir
- Person: Avicenna, Abu Ali al-Husain ibn Abdallah ibn Sina
- Person: Al-Jayyani, Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Muadh
Thank you to the contributors under CC BY-SA 4.0!
Adapted from other CC BY-SA 4.0 Sources:
- O’Connor, John J; Robertson, Edmund F: MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive